Childhood Immunizations and Vaccinations

B A B Y  A N D  C H I L D

Childhood Immunization/Vaccination


The importance of having your child immunised cannot be stressed too strongly. The benefits of immunisation far outweigh the very slight risk of side effects of the vaccines. The diseases against which immunisation are available are much more dangerous than the immunisation itself.

It is recommended that you start having your child immunised at the age of two months against diptheria, tetanus and whooping cough. This can be done through your local doctor. At the same time you can arrange for the child to have the first dose of the sabin polio vaccine. This can be arranged through your local council. It is given as oral drops.

The diptheria/tetanus/whooping cough vaccine is given as one injection and is repeated at the age of four months and six months as also is the sabin polio vaccine.

Between the ages of twelve months to fifteen months and no earlier than twelve months, a combined measles/mumps vaccine is due. This can be given by your local doctor.

Your child should receive a booster dose of combined Diphtheria/tetanus and whooping cough vaccine at the age of eighteen months and this is repeated without the whooping cough vaccine at the age of five or in the pre-school year which may be in the year before the fifth birthday.

A booster dose of sabin Polio vaccine is due also at this age.

Since 1994, routine vaccination against a relatively common cause of childhood meingitis, Haemophilus Influenza Type B (or H.I.B.) has been available. HIB vaccine is usually given in three doses, at around 12 and 24 months and then pre-school.

With females it is recommended that they receive a Rubella (German Measles) vaccine injection between the ages of ten to fifteen years. This can be given by your doctor. Remember, rubella vaccine is not to be given if there is the possibility of the person receiving the vaccine being pregnant

From the age of fifteen years on, it is advisable to have a booster diptheria/tetanus injection every ten years.

It is important that if the close family contacts of the infant to be immunised have not been immunised, then they should be immunised also. However, you should discuss the question of adult immunisation against polio with your doctor. Complications to polio vaccine though rare do occur more often in adults.

Measles/mumps vaccine can be given earlier than the twelve to fifteen months during a severe outbreak of either of the diseases. The vaccine will have to be repeated in six months or at the age of fifteen months, whichever is later.

Finally, in the case of diptheria/tetanus and whooping cough vaccine, if the first doses were given after eighteen months of age, then a booster should be given twelve to eighteen months later in the pre-school period.



Immunisation Timetable

AGEDISEASEVACCINE
2 monthsDiphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough
Polio
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
(Schedule 1 or 2)**
DTP - 'Triple antigen'
OPV - Sabin vaccine
Hib vaccine (a, b or c)*
4 monthsDiphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough
Polio
Hib (Schedule 1 or 2)**
DTP - Triple antigen'
OPV - Sabin vaccine
Hib vaccine (a, b or c)**
6 monthsDiphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough
Polio
Hib (Schedule 1 only)**
DTP - 'Triple antigen'
OPV - Sabin vaccine
Hib vaccine (a or b)*
12 monthsMeasles, mumps and rubella
I-fib (Schedule 2 only)**
Hib vaccine (c)*
18 monthsDiphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough
Hib (Schedule 1 only)**
DTP - "Triple antigen'
Fhb vaccine (a or b)*
Prior to school entry
(4-5 years)
Diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough
Polio
DTP - Triple antigen'
OPV - Sabin vaccine
10-16 yearsMeasles, mumps and rubella
Prior to leaving school
(15-19 years)
Diphtheria and tetanus
Polio
ADT - Adult diphtheria and tetanus
OPV - Sabin vaccine

* Abbreviations for Hib vaccines - (a) is HbOC (‘HibTITER’); (b) is PRP-T (‘Act-Hib’); (c) is PRP-OMP (‘PaedvaxHIB’).

** There are two different schedules for Hib vaccines:
Schedule 1 Hib vaccination applies to the use of HBOC and PRP-T. The selected vaccine is given at 2, 4, 6 and 18 months.
Schedule 2 Hib vaccination refers to the use of PRP-OMP. This vaccine is given at 2,4 and 12 months.

Note that a 4th Hib vaccine (PRP-D; 'ProHIBit’) is approved for use as single injection for children over 18 months of age.

All of the vaccines in the standard schedule, except OPV are given by deep subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. OPV is given orally. OPV should never be injected.

- Aspirin and Young Children (Reyes Syndrome).- Autism.
- Bed Wetting or Nocturnal Enuresis. - Breast or Bottle Feeding.
- Chicken Pox (Varicella). - Childhood Immunization/Vaccination
- Convulsions in Childhood. - Croup.
- Cystic Fibrosis (CF). - Deafness in Childhood.
- Diarrhoea and Vomiting. - Downs Syndrome.
- Dyslexia. - Fever in Infants.
- German Measles (Rubella). -Heart Murmurs
-Heat Exhaustion in Children.-Hyperactivity in Childhood.
-Impetigo.-Measles.
-Meningitis.-Mumps.
-Nappy Rash.-Normal Development (Baby Care).
-Speech Development in Children-Spina Bifida.
-Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or Cot Death.-Teething.
-Your Baby Won't Sleep.-Whooping Cough (Pertussis)


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